Ernst Werner von Siemens - German physicist, inventor and industrialist, is known primarily for being the founder of the eponymous firm Siemens - the European leader in the field of electronics production, and until recently and the leading developer in the field of network technologies. However, the merit of the scientist before the society is not only in this.
The future scientist was born December 13, 1816 in the town of Lente near Hanover in the family of a poor farmer. In addition to Werner, the parents had 13 children, so he had to study almost independently, without any help. He went on the only possible way in this situation. First he graduated from the gymnasium in the town of Lubeck, and then entered the military engineering school in Magdeburg.
As a military man, Siemens is more interested in science than fighting strategies. In the rank of lieutenant in 1845 he became a member of the newly formed Physical Society and it was there that his brilliant mind was opened regarding the study and study of various physical phenomena. Already through the gong, he resolutely decides to study the telegraphy, its practical side, and a year later in 1847, together with his friend and like-minded Johann Georg Halske, he founded his own telegraph company Telegraphenbauanstalt Siemens & Halske or S & H for short.
In the first years of its existence, the company was engaged not only in the development and creation of telegraph apparatus, very popular at the time, but also in the field of optics, precision mechanics, electronics and medicine. After two years of work, Siemens receives a government order for the construction of the first German telegraph line connecting Frankfurt am Main with Berlin. It is noteworthy that during the construction of this line, two inventions were used by Ernst Werner von Siemens himself. It was the scientist who proposed and put into practice underground cable laying in particularly difficult areas in the lead shell.
Also, the scientist developed the design of the cable itself used for underground laying. With the help of a special press on the cable, the gutta-percha insulation was pressed (pressed), making it more resistant to an unfavorable external environment (humidity, temperature changes, etc.). Later, Siemens received a contract for the construction of other telegraph lines, not only in Germany, but also abroad. For example, in Russia, Britain and India.
The uniqueness of Werner von Siemens is that, being a scientist, he, like his colleague Thomas Edison, did not confine himself only to theoretical scientific research, but used his inventive abilities to the full, testing in practice both his own and others' developments.
So in 1851 the scientist improves the design of the switch telegraph created earlier by Winston and Cook. Also, Siemens independently develops and creates a direct current generator and in 1867 presents it to the public. The generator turned out to be so effective and practically trouble-free that it was used for a long time in the energy and mining industries to power the power tool.
For his services in the field of physics and applied electrical engineering, the scientist was awarded the title of Doctor of Sciences in 1860, in 1874 he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, and in 1882 - a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
S & H, led by Ernst Siemens, also gave the world a number of important inventions, most of which are used to this day. So in 1879 the project of the world's first electric railway was presented. In 1880 - the first electric lift in the world, and a year later the first electric line in Berlin was opened.
Ernst Werner von Siemens himself developed a method of extracting ozone with the help of electricity (ozone tube) for drinking water purification, the method of metallizing surfaces using electricity and many other developments.
The scientist and inventor died on December 6, 1892 at the age of 75 years. In his honor was named the unit of electrical conductivity measurement - Siemens.
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